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1. Polarized Capacitor
These capacitors are suitable for DC circuits. Identify correctly the polarity of the capacitor before use. Incorrect application of polarity may cause short circuit or venting.

2. Bi-Polar Capacitors
Bi-polar type of capacitor is for a circuit where the polarity is occasionally reversed. However, take note that a bi-polar capacitor should not be used for AC voltage application.

3. Operating Voltage
Do not apply a DC voltage which exceeds the rated voltage. The peak voltage of a superimposed (ripple current) on the DC capacitor must not exceed the rated voltage. A surge voltage value which exceeds the full rated voltage is prescribed in the
catalog, but the application should be restricted to short period of time.

4. Ripple Current
Ripple current exceeding the permissible value will cause heat on the capacitor, and may decrease the capacitance or damage the capacitor. Ripple current on the capacitor must be at or below allowable level. Generally, not more than 80% of the rated current. There is a specified rated ripple current correspond to the ripple frequency. The rated ripple current at a certain frequency must be calculated by multiplying the rated ripple current by a factor.

5. Operating Temperature Range
The characteristics of capacitors change with the operating temperature. The capacitance and leakage current increase and dissipation factor decreases at higher temperature. The use of a capacitor exceeding the maximum rated temperature will considerably shorten the life or cause the capacitor to vent. Usage at lower temperature can ensure longer lifetime. The lifetime is approximately halved with each 10°C rise in ambient temperature.

6. Operating Frequency
The capacitance of the electrolytic capacitors is usually measured at 120Hz. However, the capacitance will decrease and dissipation factor increases as the applied frequency becomes higher. If a capacitor is to be used at higher frequency, you may need a specially designed capacitor that is suitable for the purpose. Please contact our technical team.

7. Charge and Discharge
Do not use the general purpose capacitors in circuits where frequent heavy charge and discharge cycles are required. Frequent, sharp, heavy, charge and discharge cycles will result in decrease in capacitance and damage to the
capacitor due to the excessive generated heat. Specific capacitors can be designed to meet the requirements of charging and discharging cycles. Please tell us your requirement.

8. Installing Capacitors
The excessive external force applied to terminals or lead wires may cause high leakage current, short /open circuit or leakage of electrolytic liquid. Make sure that the leads spacing of the capacitor matches the hole spacing of the PC board prior to installation.

If the terminals spacing of a capacitor does not fit the hole spacing of the PC board, adjust the terminals carefully so as not to cause mechanical stress to the capacitors. The following are typical examples of stress to capacitors that should be avoided:

9. Soldering Temperature
9.1 Flow soldering (wave solder)
To avoid crack sleeve and damage to capacitor, the recommended solder temperature should be within <260ºC and at a duration of <10 seconds. Avoid having flux on any surfaces except on the terminals and contact point between the board and the aluminum capacitor.

9.2 Hand soldering
Recommended solder temperature is at <350ºC and the duration at <4 seconds.

10. Cleaning after Soldering
To prevent damage to sleeve, markings and sealing materials, the capacitor should never be washed with halogenous solvents such as trichlorethylene, xylene or acetone and the like. Recommended cleaning solvents are methanol,
isopropanol, ethanol, isobutanol, petroleumether, propanol and commercial detergents.

11. Storage and Voltage Treatment
During long storage, DC leakage current of aluminum electrolytic capacitors will increase. In order to prevent heat rise and high DC leakage current, voltage treatment is recommended especially for capacitor which have been stored for
more than 2 years at room temperature.
The capacitors shall be applied with DC voltage, increasing it gradually to the rated voltage at room temperature. The voltage shall be maintained until DC leakage current comes down to the specified value or less.

12. Safety Vent
When ventinh, a capacitor gives out gas with a temperature of over 100ºC. Protect your face and eyes when working on the capacitors. In the case of a short-circuit, the aluminum electrolytic capacitor will vent and expel gas. It is suggested to provide sufficient space between the vent of capacitor with the cover or adjacent components. There should not be any
conductive material placed above the safety vent. The following spacing is recommended:

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